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美限制目标识别等AI软件出口大疆华为等回应
2020-01-08 01:03  www.rockfishriot.com

  (观察者网讯文/一鸣编辑/尹哲)2020年1月6日,美国商务部下属的工业和安全局(BIS)在美国《联邦公报》(FederalRegister)上发布新的出口管制措施:自1月6日起,美国企业出口某些地理空间图像软件时必须得到许可,才能将软件发送到海外(加拿大除外)。

( On January 6,2020, the Department of Commerce's Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) issued new export controls in the Federal Register: as of January 6, US companies must obtain permission to export certain geospatial image software to send it overseas (except Canada).

  根据文件要求,应用于智能化传感器、无人机、卫星和其他自动化设备的目标识别软件(无论民用或军用)都在限制范围之内。

Target recognition software applied to intelligent sensors, drones, satellites and other automation devices, whether civil or military, is within the limits as required by the documentation.

  国内无人机巨头大疆创新对观察者网表示,美国相关政策的出台,对大疆来说算是一个利好,因为大疆本身有自主研发的航测软件“大疆智图”。

Dajiang innovation, a domestic drone giant, told observers that the introduction of u. s.related policies is a good deal for dajiang, because it has its own research and development of the navigation software \"dajiang zhi map \".

  国内数字地图服务商对观察者网表示,目前来看新规对其没有影响,因为其地图均为自采、地理图像软件也是自研。

Domestic digital map service providers told the observer network that the new rules do not have an impact on it, because its maps are self-collection, geographic image software is self-research.

  美国商务部称,之所以某些地理空间图像软件需要受到贸易限制,原因是它们为美国提供了“重要的军事或情报优势”。

The Commerce Department says some geospatial image software is subject to trade restrictions because it provides the United States with \"significant military or intelligence advantages \".

  根据文件,新规中的所指的地理空间图像软件为训练深度神经网络以自动分析地理空间图像和点云(pointclouds,在逆向工程中通过测量仪器得到的产品外观表面的点数据集合称之为点云——观察者网注)而专门设计的软件。这类软件包括以下特征:

According to the document, the geo-spatial image software referred to in the new regulation is specifically designed to train deep neural networks to automatically analyze geospatial images and point clouds (point clouds), which are called point clouds - observer-net notes - a collection of point data from the product's appearance surface obtained by measuring instruments in reverse engineering. Such software includes the following features:

  提供图形用户界面,使用户能够从地理空间图像和点云中识别目标(如车辆、房屋等),以提取感兴趣对象的正面和负面样本;

Provide a graphical user interface that enables users to identify targets (such as vehicles, houses, etc.) from geospatial images and point clouds to extract positive and negative samples of objects of interest;

  使用训练过的深度卷积神经网络,将正面样本中的旋转模式与地理空间图像中目标的旋转模式进行匹配,从而识别出地理空间图像中的目标。

using the trained deep convolutional neural network, the rotation pattern in the frontal sample is matched with the rotation pattern of the target in the geospatial image to identify the target in the geospatial image.

  据了解,上述新措施是美国商务部根据《2018年出口控制法案》授权出台的第一项措施。该法案授权商务部制定相关规则,加强对敏感技术出口的监管,以保护美国经济和安全等方面的利益。

The new measures are understood to be the first mandated by the U.S. Department of Commerce under the Export Control Act 2018. The bill empowers the Commerce Department to enact rules to strengthen regulation of exports of sensitive technologies to protect U.S. economic and security interests.

  尽管这项新措施没有具体说明针对哪些国家,但路透社报道认为,美国的这项出口管制措施就是希望敏感技术“不要落入中国等竞争对手之手”。

Although the new measure doesn't specify which countries it is targeting, reuters said the u.s. export-control measure was intended to \"not fall into the hands of competitors like china \".

  上述媒体还指出,美国共和党和民主党议员此前一直对加强出口管制措施实施缓慢感到失望,参议院少数党领袖舒默曾敦促商务部加快这一进程。

The media also noted that Republican and Democratic lawmakers in the United States had been disappointed by the slow implementation of measures to strengthen export controls, Senate minority leader Schumer had urged the Commerce Department to speed up the process.

  美国智库战略与国际研究中心(CSIS)副总裁、资深网络安全研究员詹姆斯·刘易斯表示,新规是为了防止美国公司帮助中国制造出更好的AI产品,进而对中国军队有所帮助。

James Lewis, vice president of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and senior cybersecurity fellow at the US think tank, said the new rules were designed to help the Chinese military by preventing U.S. companies from helping China make better AI products.

  刘易斯透露,这项规定涵盖了传感器、无人机和卫星中的一些软件,这些软件可以用来实现军事或民用目的的自动化,他认为这项规定可能会受到业界的欢迎,因为他们曾担心人工智能硬件和软件出口会遭受更大范围的打击。

Mr Lewis revealed that the rule covers some of the software in sensors, drones and satellites that can be used to automate military or civilian purposes, and he said it could be welcomed by the industry, who had feared that AI hardware and software exports would suffer a wider range of blows.

  路透社表示,该规定目前将仅在美国生效,但美国以后可以将其提交给国际机构,将影响力扩大到全球范围内。

Reuters said the rule would now be in force only in the U.S., but the U.S. could later refer it to international agencies to expand its reach globally.

  据了解,美国商务部下属的工业和安全局的主要任务是通过确保实施有效的出口管制及条约合规体系,以保障美国的国家安全、促进外交政策和经济目标的实施,并保障美国战略技术的“持续领导地位”。

It is understood that the main task of the U.S. Department of Commerce's Department of Industry and Security is to ensure effective export controls and treaty compliance systems to safeguard U.S. national security, promote the implementation of foreign policy and economic objectives, and safeguard the \"sustained leadership\" of U.S. strategic technology.

  此前臭名昭著的美国进出口管制条例“实体清单”也是由该机构全权负责。2019年5月,美国商务部将华为等中国公司和机构加入了“实体清单”,海康、大华、旷视等企业也在10月被列入该清单。

The previously infamous \"list of entities\" of U.S. import and export control regulations is also the sole responsibility of the agency. In may 2019, the u. s. department of commerce added chinese companies and institutions such as Huawei to the \"physical list \", and companies such as haekang, dahua and guangxi were added to the list in october.